10. Hurricane San Ciriaco 1899
Hurricane San Ciriaco, also called the 1899 Puerto Rico Hurricane, San Ciriaco Hurricane, or 1899 Hurricane San Ciriaco, was an intense and long-lived Atlantic Cape Verde-kind hurricane which crossed Puerto Rico over the 2 day period August 8 to August 9, 1899, inflicting many deaths from the flooding.
It saved tropical storm strength or increased for 28 days, which makes it the longest length Atlantic hurricane on file and the second-longest anyplace on this planet.
The tropical storm that later ravaged Puerto Rico developed on August 3 within the tropical Atlantic. It moved in a west-northwest direction, becoming a hurricane on the 5th. Because it neared the northern Lesser Antilles, it strengthened into a serious hurricane, bringing heavy winds to Dominica, St. Kitts, and Guadeloupe on the seventh. It continued to accentuate to its peak of 150 mph before hitting southeast Puerto Rico on the eighth. It crossed the island in an east-southeast to west-northwest direction, inflicting maximum wind speeds between 110 and a hundred and forty mph all through. After it handed Puerto Rico, it brushed northern Dominican Republic as a Category three hurricane, however passed north enough to not trigger major harm.
It passed through the Bahamas, retaining its power as it moved slowly northward. After drifting northeastward, the hurricane turned northwestward, hitting the Outer Banks on August 17. It drifted northeastward over the state, re-rising into the Atlantic on the nineteenth. It continued eastward, the place it grew to become extra-tropical on the 22nd. The extra-tropical cyclone turned southeastward where, on August 26, it grew to become a tropical storm again. Like a lot of the rest of its lifetime, it drifted, first to the northwest then to the east. It strengthened as it moved eastward, and on September 3, because it was shifting via the Azores, it again turned a hurricane. The intensification didn’t last long, and the hurricane became additional-tropical for good on the 4th. It dissipated that day while racing across the northeastern Atlantic. Estimates of individuals killed range from three,one hundred to 3,four hundred, with thousands and thousands of dollars in crop injury in Puerto Rico. North Carolina fared a little better, however nonetheless had considerable tobacco and corn injury from the longevity of the robust winds and rain, making this hurricane the 10th deadliest in historical past.
9. 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane
The Okeechobee Hurricane or Hurricane San Felipe Segundo was a lethal hurricane that struck the Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, and Florida in September 1928.
It was the first recorded hurricane to achieve Category 5 status and as of 2006, it remains the one recorded hurricane to strike Puerto Rico at Category 5 energy. The hurricane triggered devastation all through its path, as many as 1,200 folks have been killed in Guadeloupe, Puerto Rico struck directly by the storm at peak power, killed a minimum of 300 and leaving lots of of 1000’s homeless. The 160 mph (260 km/h) wind measurement from Puerto Rico was taken by a cup anemometer in San Juan, 30 miles (50 km) north of the storm’s middle, which measured a hundred and sixty mph (260 km/h) sustained winds three hours before the peak wind pace was reached; however, the instrument was destroyed quickly after and could not be calibrated. The hurricane was also extraordinarily massive as it crossed Puerto Rico. Hurricane-power winds had been measured in Guayama for 18 hours; for the reason that storm is estimated to have been shifting at thirteen mph (21 km/h), the diameter of the storm’s hurricane winds was estimated very roughly to be 234 miles (376 km). At the very least 10 inches (250 mm) of rain was dropped over the entire island. Official reviews said that “several hundred thousand” folks were left homeless, and property damages have been estimated at $50 million 1928 US dollars.
The eye of the hurricane passed simply south of Grand Bahama as a strong Class 4 hurricane, once more causing very heavy damage. Not like Puerto Rico, authorities within the Bahamas had been conscious of the hurricane’s passage properly forward of time, and preparations minimized the loss of life within the islands.
In south Florida at least 2,500 had been killed when storm surge from Lake Okeechobee breached the dike surrounding the lake, flooding an area masking lots of of sq. miles. Coastal harm in Florida close to the point of landfall was catastrophic. Miami, well south of the point of landfall, escaped with very little harm; Hollywood and Fort Lauderdale suffered solely slight damages.
Northward, from Pompano Seashore to Jupiter, buildings suffered severe damage from the heavy winds and 10 ft (3 meter) storm surge, which was heaviest in the vicinity of Palm Seaside; complete coastal damages were estimated as “several million” dollars. Because of the effectively-issued hurricane warnings, residents were prepared for the storm, and the lack of life in the coastal Palm Seaside space was only 26.
Inland, the hurricane wreaked far more widespread destruction along the extra heavily populated coast of Lake Okeechobee. Residents had been warned to evacuate the low floor earlier in the day, but the hurricane did not arrive on schedule so folks returned to their homes. The worst of the storm crossed the lake with winds measured on the ground at round one hundred forty mph (225 km/h) – the south-blowing wind triggered a storm surge to overflow the small dike that had been built at the south end of the lake. The resulting flood covered an space of a whole bunch of square miles with water in some locations over 20 ft (6 m) deep. Houses floated off of their foundations and destroyed hitting any impediment they encountered. Most survivors and bodies had been washed out into the Everglades the place many of the our bodies had been by no means discovered. Because the rear eye wall handed over the world, the flood reversed itself, breaking the dikes alongside the northern coast of the lake and inflicting a similar but smaller flood.
Floodwaters endured for several weeks, impeding attempts to scrub up the devastation. Burial providers have been rapidly overwhelmed, and many of the our bodies had been positioned into mass graves. The Pink Cross estimated the number of fatalities as 1,836, which was taken as the official rely by the National Climate Service for a few years; older sources usually list three,411 as the total depend of fatalities, including the Caribbean. However, in 2003 this was revised as “not less than” 2,500, making the Okeechobee hurricane ninth deadliest hurricane. In complete, the hurricane killed a minimum of 4,075 people and prompted round $a hundred million 1928 US dollars in damages over the course of its path.
8. Newfoundland Hurricane of 1775
A letter from New Bern, North Carolina recounted, “We had a violent hurricane…which has carried out a vast deal of injury here, on the Bar, and at Matamuskeet, close to a hundred and fifty lives being lost at the Bar, and 15 in a single neighborhood at Matamuskeet.”
The Newfoundland Hurricane of 1775 is also called the Independence Hurricane. It was a hurricane that hit Newfoundland in September of 1775 and is believed to have killed not less than four,000 individuals.
A storm struck the eastern coast of Newfoundland on September 9, 1775. It is uncertain if this storm was the remnants of the hurricane that had crossed the Outer Banks over a week earlier; if so, it was probably further tropical by this time.
Newfoundland’s fisheries “received a very extreme stroke from the violence of the wind, which almost swept every thing earlier than it,” the colonial governor Richard Duff wrote shortly after it struck. “A substantial number of boats, with their crews, have been totally misplaced, several vessels wrecked on the shores,” he mentioned. Ocean levels rose to heights “scarcely ever identified before” and triggered great devastation, Duff reported.
A total of four,000 sailors, largely from England and Ireland, have been reported to have been drowned, a localized storm surge is reported to have reached heights of between 20 and 30 feet. Losses from the hurricane embrace many fishing boats and two armed schooners of the Royal Navy, who had been on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland to enforced Britain’s fishing rights.
The hurricane is Atlantic Canada’s first recorded hurricane and Canada’s most tragic pure disaster (and by far the deadliest hurricane to ever hit Canada), as well as the eighth deadliest hurricane in historical past.
7. Atlantic hurricane 1766
In 1766 there was a extreme hurricane in Jamaica across the islands of the West Indies. Captain John Leaycroft, who was a member of the Leaycraft family of Beaufort North Carolina, was in Jamaica days afterwards and his report was revealed in the Virginia Gazette on 24th October 1766. His claim says “it came in at 10am continued without abating until 5pm and has done considerable injury”.
The hurricane moving northward via the Carolinas affected a Revolutionary War battle in Virginia; it brought on supply ships to sink in the Chesapeake Bay space.
September 4th, 1766: The hurricane hits Galveston.
A mission named San Augustine de Ahumado, positioned in what is now thought of Chambers County, was destroyed. Storm surges of 7 ft flooded the world. A richly-laden treasure fleet of 5 galleons en route from Vera Cruz to Havana was pushed ashore and needed to wait many weeks for assistance to come back. Happily, much of the treasure and people aboard had been saved.
The highly effective hurricane hit Martinique on September 5.
It hit Pointe-a-Pitre Bay, Guadeloupe the following day, and triggered 6000 fatalities making it the seventh deadliest hurricane in Atlantic historical past..
6. Hurricane Flora 1963
Hurricane Flora blasted by the Caribbean in September and October 1963.
The Category 4 system struck the southwest peninsula of Haiti on October four, causing heavy rains and flooding. Flora hit southeast Cuba near Guantanamo Bay also on the 4th, but a high strain system to its north and one other to its west induced Flora to drift over Cuba. It reached the Caribbean again on the 6th, but it surely again hit Cuba on the 7th. Flora was pulled to the north-east by a trough, bringing the hurricane into the Atlantic Ocean on the 8th. Flora steadily strengthened to a a hundred and fifteen mph main hurricane on the 10th, however cooler water temperatures weakened Flora till it turned further tropical on the 12th.
The hurricane brought about such great injury in Tobago that it modified the financial system of the island from money-crop agriculture in direction of tourism and fishing. Heavy crop damage was reported in Haiti, with smaller quantities of injury in Dominican Republic.
Flora left 7,193 folks dead in Haiti and Cuba, making it the 6th deadliest hurricane in Atlantic history.
As well as, Flora triggered a total of $528 million (1963 dollars) in harm.
5. 1930 Dominican Republic Hurricane
The 1930 Dominican Republic Hurricane was a small however intense Category four storm during the 1930 Atlantic hurricane season.
On August 25, a tropical storm was noticed to the south of the Cape Verde islands. It moved steadily westward and attained hurricane standing on August 31 while situated about 495 miles east of Guadeloupe. It moved simply south of due west, and strengthened into a hurricane later on the 31st. The hurricane continued to slowly strengthen, and reached winds speeds of 95 mph because it crossed the northern Lesser Antilles on September 1.
The hurricane rapidly strengthened over the Caribbean Sea, and reached main hurricane status just off the southern coast of Puerto Rico on September 2. It slowed to a west-northwest drift and intensified, peaking as a Class four hurricane with one hundred fifty mph winds on September 3. Soon after, the extreme hurricane struck southern Dominican Republic close to Santo Domingo. The city experienced very intense wind gusts estimated from one hundred eighty-200 mph.
While crossing Hispaniola on September three and September 4, the hurricane quickly weakened over the mountainous terrain to a 70 mph tropical storm because it entered the Windward Passage. After spending lower than 12 hours over waters with a severely disrupted circulation, the storm hit southeastern Cuba late on the 4th, and paralleled the southern coast of the island. It briefly emerged into the Caribbean Sea on the fifth, but moved again ashore because it continued its west-northwest movement.
On September 6, the small tropical storm reached the Gulf of Mexico. Its movement changed to a northeast drift, the place it crossed Florida close to Tampa Bay on September 9. It accelerated to the northeast, the place it was lastly able to strengthen over the warm Gulf Stream waters. On September 12, it turned a hurricane once more to the east of South Carolina, and reached a secondary peak of ninety five mph on the 14th as it turned eastward. It weakened over the Northern Atlantic, and dissipated on September 17.
While crossing the Lesser Antilles, the hurricane had a relatively minor impact; Puerto Rico acquired heavy rains as much as 6 inches, although an unusual prevalence occurred when the southern part of the island, the half nearest to the hurricane, felt just one-2 inches of rain.
Town of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic was practically destroyed from the hurricane’s sturdy winds. The damage was estimated at $50 million USD. This tropical cyclone killed as many as 8,000 folks when it crossed Hispaniola, making it the fifth deadliest Atlantic hurricane on file.
4. Hurricane Fifi 1974
Hurricane Fifi (or Hurricane Fifi-Orlene) was a catastrophic storm in the course of the 1974 Atlantic hurricane season that made landfall in Belize. Fifi was some of the expensive hurricanes in historical past, inflicting $three.7 billion USD in damages. It was additionally one of many deadliest Atlantic hurricanes, killing as many as 10,000 people. Fifi was one of the few storms that crossed from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean.
Fifi, solely a Class 2 hurricane at its strongest, skirted the north coast of Honduras, causing massive flooding from the influx of southerly winds. The rains collected in rivers, which brought on enormous amounts of physical and financial damage to poor villages, small cities, and commercial banana plantations when it skimmed Honduras. A lot of the nation’s fishing fleet was destroyed. Although estimates of the number killed vary from 3,000 to 10,000, a determine of eight,000 lifeless is generally accepted. Most deaths might have been attributable to freshwater flooding from the rainfall that accompanied the hurricane.
The remnants of Fifi encountered a depression and interacted with it. This triggered the development of one other system. After it was named Orlene, it paralleled the coast of Mexico before reaching hurricane depth on September 23. It made landfall near its secondary peak strength on September 23 southeast of Culiacan and dissipated shortly after that.
Hurricane Fifi is normally thought of the fourth deadliest hurricane in history, although uncertainty about the variety of deaths attributable to Fifi and the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 could place it as the third deadliest ever.
Fifi triggered a complete of $900 million 1974 USD in injury
three. Galveston Hurricane of 1900
The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 made landfall on town of Galveston, Texas, on September eight, 1900. It had estimated winds of a hundred thirty five miles per hour (215 km/h) at landfall, making it a Class 4 storm. The hurricane precipitated great loss of life with the dying toll estimated to be between 6,000 and 12,000 folks. The number most cited in official reviews is 8,000, giving the storm the third-highest variety of casualties of any Atlantic hurricane.
Widespread names for the storm include the Galveston Hurricane of 1900, the Great Galveston Hurricane, and in older documentation, the Galveston Flood.
At the time of the 1900 storm, the best point in the city of Galveston was only 8.7 ft (2.7 m) above sea level. The hurricane had brought with it a storm surge of over 15 toes (4.6 m), which washed over the complete island. The surge knocked buildings off their foundations, and the ocean pounded them to items.
Over 3,600 properties have been destroyed, and a wall of debris faced the ocean. The few buildings which survived, largely solid constructed mansions and homes alongside the Strand, are today maintained as tourist attractions.
2. Hurricane Mitch 1998
Hurricane Mitch was one of many deadliest and strongest hurricanes ever observed, with maximum sustained winds of 180 mph (290 km/h). The storm was the thirteenth tropical storm, ninth hurricane, and third major hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season. On the time, Mitch was the strongest Atlantic hurricane ever observed in the month of October.
Mitch formed within the western Caribbean Sea on October 22, and after drifting via extraordinarily favorable conditions, it rapidly strengthened to peak at Category 5 standing.
After drifting southwestward and weakening, the hurricane hit Honduras as a minimal hurricane. It drifted by way of Central America, reformed within the Bay of Campeche, and ultimately struck Florida as a powerful tropical storm.
Attributable to its sluggish movement from October 29 to November three, Hurricane Mitch dropped historic quantities of rainfall in Honduras and Nicaragua, with unofficial reports of as much as seventy five inches (1900 mm). Deaths on account of catastrophic flooding made it the second deadliest hurricane in history; practically 11,000 folks had been killed with over 8,000 left lacking by the end of 1998.
The flooding precipitated excessive damage, estimated at over $5 billion (1998 USD).
1. Great Hurricane of 1780
The Nice Hurricane of 1780 is considered the deadliest Atlantic tropical cyclone of all time. About 22,000 individuals died when the storm pounded Barbados, Martinique, and Saint Eustatius in the Lesser Antilles between October 10 and October 16. 1000’s of deaths additionally occurred offshore.
The demise toll from the 1780 storm alone exceeds that for any other complete decade of Atlantic hurricanes. The hurricane struck the Caribbean in the midst of the American Revolution and took a heavy toll on the British and French fleets. British Admiral George Rodney arrived from New York after the storm, finding eight of twelve warships left in Barbados totally lost and most of their crews drowned. The storm additionally scattered and damaged most of the fleet under his command.
The storm killed 9 thousand on Martinique. Whereas within the Lesser Antilles, it killed several thousand sailors of the Spanish, Dutch, British, and French fleets. The storm additionally took many lives on other islands, together with Saint Lucia.
Four to 5 thousand lives had been lost on Saint Eustatius. The storm then passed over the southwestern corner of Puerto Rico heading northwestward. It probably ranked as the most devastating within the history of the island on the time.